Shamshi-Adad V & Others by Wikipedia

Detail from a stele portraying Shamshi-Adad V on British Museum

Shamshi-Adad V was the King of Assyria from 824 to 811 BC. He was the son and successor of Shalmaneser III, the husband of Shammuramat (by some identified with the mythical Semiramis), and the father of Adad-nirari III, who succeeded him as king.

The first years of his reign saw a serious struggle for the succession of the aged Shalmaneser. The revolt was led by Shamshi-Adad’s brother Assur-danin-pal, and had broken out already by 826 BC. The rebellious brother, according to Shamshi-Adad’s own inscriptions, succeeded in bringing to his side 27 important cities, including Nineveh. The rebellion lasted until 820 BC, weakening the Assyrian empire and its ruler; this weakness continued to reverberate in the kingdom until the reforms of Tiglath-pileser III.

Later in his reign, Shamshi-Adad campaigned against Southern Mesopotamia, and stipulated a treaty with the Babylonian king Marduk-zakir-shumi I. In 814 B.C. he won a battle of Dur-Papsukkal against the Babylonian king Murduk-balassu-iqbi and few Aramean tribes settled in Babylonia.

Preceded by
Shalmaneser III

King of Assyria
824–811 BC

Succeeded by
Adad-nirari III

Shammuramat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Shammuramat

Queen of Assyria

Reign

811 BC – 808 BC or 809 BC – 792 BC

Alternate Spelling

Sammur-amat

Predecessor

Shamshi-Adad V. (823-811)

Successor

Adad-nirari III. (810-783)]]

Offspring

Adad-nirari III

Shammuramat or Sammur-amat was Queen of Assyria 811 BC–808 BC. The widow of King Shamshi-Adad V reigned for three years on the throne of Assyria. Other chronologies suggest that her regency lasted from 809 to 792 BCE.[1][2]

Shammuramat’s stela (memorial stone) has been found at Ashur, while an inscription at Calah (Nimrud) indicates that she was dominant there after the death of her husband and before the rule of her son.

The legendary Semiramis is usually considered a purely mythical figure, however, there is evidence in Assyrian records suggesting that she may, in fact, be a Greek reflection of Shammuramat. This identification is disputed.

She was probably the Semíramis, which according to Greek and Persian legends, ruled the Assyrian, Armenia, Arabia, Persia, Egypt and throughout Asia for more than forty years, she founded the Babylon and its famous gardens. It was the legend that Seríramis of divine origin, a specialist in Botany, an alchemist she has a deep knowledge of the kinds of plants, which grew in their gardens and that she collected to produce their formulas. Aromatic baths, plasters with plants and flowers, resins, teas and all that was used with great mastery, for both cosmetics in general and for the treatment of the hair of the sovereign. This mythical queen was beautiful and very proud, looking always have on hand all the products that could make it even more beautiful. The essential oils were members of the chemistry of the season added to the cream (made with fat animal melted and filtered in pieces of linen), and the portions already flavored oils and are also used as medicine.

Shalmaneser IV

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Shalmaneser IV was king of Assyria (783 – 773 BC). He succeeded his father Adad-nirari III, and was succeeded by his brother Ashur-dan III. Very little information about his reign has survived.

According to the eponym canon, he led several campaigns against Urartu (mod. Armenia). His rulership was severely limited by the growing influence of high dignitaries, particularly that of Shamshi-ilu, who was then commander-in-chief of the army.

Preceded by
Adad-nirari IIIKing of Assyria
783–773 BC

Succeeded by
Ashur-dan III

Ashur-dan III

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ashur-dan III was King of Assyria from 773 to 755 BC.

Ashur-dan III was the son of Adad-nirari III, and succeeded his brother Shalmaneser IV in 773 BC. Ashur-dan’s reign was a difficult age for the Assyrian monarchy. The rulership was severely limited by the influence of court dignitaries, particularly that of Shamshi-ilu, who was the commander-in-chief (turtanu). According to the eponym canon, in 765 BC Assyria was hit by a plague, and the following year the king could not campaign (it was customary for the Assyrian king to lead a military expedition every year). In 763 BC a revolt broke out, which lasted until 759 BC, when another plague hit the land. His reign and the reigns of preceding Assyrian kings have been astronomically dated based on the only verifiable reference to a solar eclipse in Assyrian chronicles, the so-called eclipse of Bur Sagale. Ashur-dan was succeeded by another brother, Ashur-nirari V.

Preceded by
Shalmaneser IV

King of Assyria
773–755 BC

Succeeded by
Ashur-nirari V

Ashur-nirari V

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ashur-nirari V (also Assurnirari) was King of Assyria from 755 to 745 BC. He was succeeded by Tiglath-Pileser III.

Ashur-nirari V was a son of Adad-nirari III, and succeeded his brother, Ashur-dan III. He inherited a difficult situation from his predecessor. The Assyrian rulership was severely limited by the influence of court dignitaries, particularly that of Shamshi-ilu, who was the commander-in-chief (turtanu). According to the eponym canon, for four years the king was compelled to stay “in the land”. It was customary for the Assyrian king to campaign every year, and such an indication usually meant the kingship had been seriously weakened. In his fourth and fifth regnal years, however, he campaigned to Namri. In 746 BC a revolt broke out again, and the following year the throne was seized by Tiglath-pileser III, who may have been his brother or his son, or, alternately, an usurper with no relationship to the previous royal house at all.

Preceded by
Ashur-dan III

King of Assyria
755–745 BC

Succeeded by
Tiglath-Pileser III