The Sumerian kings list: translation

The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature

 

(Texts: All Artefacts, Color Coding, & Writings in Bold Type With Italics Inside Parenthesis, are Added by Editor R. Brown, not the Authors, Translators, or Publishers!)

(gods in bluemixed-breed demigods in teal...)

 

Sumerian on clay, Babylonia, 2000-1800 BC, 1 tablet, 8,1×6,5×2,7 cm, single column, 26 lines in cuneiform script.

(In the following translation, mss. are referred to by the sigla used by Vincente 1995; from those listed there, mss. Fi, Go, P6, and WB 62 were not used; if not specified by a note, numerical data come from ms. WB.)

 

          Kingship - Sumerian Kings List 

(Sumerian Kings List, original ancient list of Earth’s 1st kings, all mixed-breeds kings appointed by the gods)

        1y-nippur-enlils-city-in-the-1st-region  (land of the gods, the “Eden”, the land between the Rivers Euphrates & Tigris)

4d - Eridu remains (Eridu ruins, Enki’s patron city)

1-39 After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug (Eridu).

In Eridug, Alulim (giant mixed-breed son-king of the Anunnaki alien gods) became king; he ruled for 28,800 years.

Alaljar (bigger, stronger, faster, smarter, & lived much longer than non-mixed earthlings) ruled for 36,000 years.

2 kings; they ruled for 64,800 years.

Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira.

 

1a - Bad-tibira, Iraq (aerial view of looted Bad-tibira ruins, Dumuzi’s patron city)

In Bad-tibira, En-men-lu-ana ruled for 43,200 years.

En-men-gal-ana ruled for 28,800 years.

Dumuzid (Inanna’s spouse), the shepherd, ruled for 36,000 years.

3 kings; they ruled for 108,000 years.

Then Bad-tibira fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Larag.

 

In Larag (Larak, Utu’s city), En-sipad-zid-ana ruled for 28,800 years.

1 king; he ruled for 28,800 years.

Then Larag fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Zimbir.

 

2 - Utu's Temple destroyed by Noah's Flood (Sippar ruins, Utu’s patron city)

In Zimbir (Sippar), En-men-dur-ana became king; he ruled for 21,000 years.

1 king; he ruled for 21,000 years.

Then Zimbir fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Curuppag.

 

In Curuppag (Shurrapak, Ninlil’s city), Ubara-Tutu (Noah) became king; he ruled for 18,600 years.

1 king; he ruled for 18,600 years.

In 5 cities 8 kings; they ruled for 241,200 years.

Then the flood swept over.

 

2d - Kish 1926 (Kish ruins, Ninhursag’s patron city)

40-94After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kic.

In Kic, Jucur became king; he ruled for 1,200 years.

Kullassina-bel ruled for 960 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 900) years.

Nanjiclicma ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 670 (?) years.

En-tarah-ana ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 420 years ……, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days.

Babum …… ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 300 years.

Puannum ruled for 840 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 240) years.

Kalibum ruled for 960 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 900) years.

Kalumum ruled for 840 (mss. P3+BT14, Su1 has instead: 900) years.

Zuqaqip ruled for 900 (ms. Su1 has instead: 600) years.

(In mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5, the 10th and 11th rulers of the dynasty precede the 8th and 9th.)

Atab (mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5 have instead: Aba) ruled for 600 years.

Macda, the son of Atab, ruled for 840 (ms. Su1 has instead: 720) years.

Arwium, the son of Macda, ruled for 720 years.

3b-etana-king-of-kish-flies-to-nibiru  3c-king-etana-carried-off-to-heaven

    (Kish King Etana is lifted by eagle / pilot off the Earth, headed for Heaven / planet Nibiru, to see god the father, Anu)

Etana, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven (planet Nibiru) and consolidated all the foreign countries, became king;

he ruled for 1,500 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 635) years.

Balih, the son of Etana, ruled for 400 (mss. P2+L2, Su1 have instead: 410) years.

En-me-nuna ruled for 660 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 621) years.

Melem-Kic, the son of En-me-nuna, ruled for 900 years.

(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1,560 are the years of the dynasty of En-me-nuna.

Barsal-nuna, the son of En-me-nuna, (mss. P5, P3+BT14 have instead: Barsal-nuna) ruled for 1,200 years.

Zamug, the son of Barsal-nuna, ruled for 140 years.

Tizqar, the son of Zamug, ruled for 305 years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1620 + X …

Ilku ruled for 900 years.

Iltasadum ruled for 1,200 years.

En-men-barage-si, who made the land of Elam submit, became king; he ruled for 900 years.

Aga, the son of En-men-barage-si, ruled for 625 years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:)

1,525 are the years of the dynasty of En-men-barage-si.

23 kings; they ruled for 24,510 years, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days.

Then Kic (Kish) was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana (Anu’s residence / temple in Uruk).

 

3d - Anu's Home on Earth (E-ana in Uruk, ziggurat / residence of Anu, Inanna, etc.)

95-133 In E-ana, Mec-ki-aj-gacer, the (giant mixed-breed) son of Utu, became lord and king;

he ruled for 324 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 325) years.

Mec-ki-aj-gacer (Meshkiagasher) entered the sea and disappeared.

Enmerkar, the son of Mec-ki-aj-gacer, the king of Unug (Uruk), who built Unug

(mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have instead: under whom Unug was built), became king; he ruled for 420 (ms. TL has instead: 900 + X) years.

(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 745 are the years of the dynasty of Mec-ki-aj-gacer. (ms TL adds instead: ……; he ruled for 5 + X years.)

Lugalbanda (Ninsun’s mixed-breed spouse), the shepherd, ruled for 1,200 years.

Dumuzid, the fisherman, whose city was Kuara, ruled for 100 (ms. TL has instead: 110) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:)

He captured En-me-barage-si single-handed.

Gilgamec (Ninsun’s son), whose father (Lugalbanda) was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba, ruled for 126 years.

Ur-Nungal, the son of Gilgamec (Gilgamesh), ruled for 30 years.

Udul-kalama, the son of Ur-Nungal (ms. Su1 has instead: Ur-lugal), ruled for 15 years.

La-ba’cum ruled for 9 years.

En-nun-tarah-ana ruled for 8 years.

Mec-he, the smith, ruled for 36 years.

Melem-ana (ms. Su2 has instead: Til-kug (?) ……) ruled for 6 (ms. Su2 has instead: 900) years.

Lugal-kitun (?) ruled for 3 (ms. Su2 has instead: 420) years.

12 kings; they ruled for 2,310 (ms. Su2 has instead: 3,588) years.

Then Unug (Uruk) was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur).

 

3ca - Nannar's house & city of Ur (Nannar’s ziggurat / residence in patron city of Ur)

134-147 In Urim (Ur, Nannar’s city), Mec-Ane-pada became king; he ruled for 80 years.

Mec-ki-aj-Nanna (ms. P2+L2 has instead: Mec-ki-aj-nuna), the son of Mec-Ane-pada, became king;

he ruled for 36 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 30) years.

Elulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) 25 years.

Balulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) 36 years. (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have:)

4 kings; they ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) 171 years.

Then Urim (Ur) was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan.

 

148-159In Awan, …… became king; he ruled for …… years.

…… ruled for …… years.

…… ruled for 36 years.

3 kings; they ruled for 356 years.

Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kic (Kish, Ninhursag’s patron city).

 

160-178 In Kic (Kish), Susuda, the fuller, became king; he ruled for 201 + X years.

Dadasig ruled for (ms. vD has:) 81 years.

Mamagal, the boatman, ruled for 360 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 420) years.

Kalbum, the son of Mamagal (ms. WB has instead: Magalgal), ruled for 195 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 132) years.

Tuge (?) ruled for 360 years.

Men-nuna, (ms. L1+N1 adds:) the son of Tuge (?), ruled for 180 years.

(in mss. L1+N1, TL, the 7th and 8th rulers of the dynasty are in reverse order) …… ruled for 290 years.

Lugalju ruled for 360 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 420) years.

8 kings; they ruled for 3195 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 3792) years.

Then Kic (Kish) was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi.

 

179-185 In Hamazi, Hadanic became king; he ruled for 360 years.

1 king; he ruled for 360 years.

Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship was taken (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: was returned a second time) to Unug (Uruk).

 

(In mss. IB, L1+N1, TL, the 2nd dynasty of Unug of ll. 185-191 is preceded by the 2nd dynasty of Urim of ll. 192-203.)

186-192In Unug (Uruk), En-cakanca-ana became king; he ruled for 60 years.

Lugal-ure (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: Lugal-kinice-dudu (?)) ruled for 120 years.

Argandea ruled for 7 years.

(ms. L1+N1 has:) 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) 187 years.

Then Unug (Uruk) was defeated (ms. TL has instead:destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur).

 

193-204 In Urim (Ur), Nani became king; he ruled for (ms. vD has:) 120 + X (ms. IB has instead: 54 + X) years.

Mec-ki-aj-Nanna, the son of Nani, ruled for (ms. vD has:) 48 years.

……, the son (?) of ……, ruled for (ms. IB has:) 2 years.

(ms. IB has:) 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. IB has:) 582 (ms. TL has instead: 578) years.

(ms. vD has instead: 2 kings; they ruled for 120 + years.)

Then Urim (Ur) was defeated (ms. TL has instead:destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Adab.

 

205-210 In Adab, Lugal-Ane-mundu became king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) 90 years.

(mss. L1+N1, TL have:) 1 king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) 90 years.

Then Adab was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Mari.

 

211-223In Mari, Anbu (?) became king; he ruled for 30 (ms. TL has instead: 90) years.

Anba (?), the son of Anbu (?), ruled for 17 (ms. TL has instead: 7) years.

Bazi, the leatherworker, ruled for 30 years.

Zizi, the fuller, ruled for 20 years.

Limer, the gudu priest, ruled for 30 years.

Carrum-iter ruled for 9 (ms. TL has instead: 7) years.

6 kings; they ruled for 136 (ms. TL has instead: 184) years.

Then Mari was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Kic (Kish).

 

224-231In Kic (Kish), Kug-Bau, the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kic,

became king; she ruled for 100 years.

1 king; she ruled for 100 years.

Then Kic was defeated (ms. TL has instead:destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Akcak (Akkad / Agade, Adad’s domain).

 

232-243In Akcak (Akkad / Agade), Unzi became king; he ruled for 30 years.

Undalulu ruled for 6 (mss. L1+N1, S have instead: 12) years.

Urur ruled for (ms. IB has instead: was king (?) for) 6 years.

Puzur-Nirah ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) 20 years.

Icu-Il ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) 24 years.

Cu-Suen, the son of Icu-Il, ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, TL have:) 7 (ms. Su1 has instead: 24) years.(mss. S, Su1, TL have:)

6 kings; they ruled for (mss. L1+N1, S, TL have:) 99 (ms. Su1 has instead: 116) years

(ms. IB has instead: 5 kings; they ruled for (ms. IB has:) 87 years).

Then Akcak was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Akcak (Akkad) was abolished)

and the kingship was taken to Kic (Kish).

 

(mss. IB, S, Su1, Su3+Su4 list the 3rd and 4th dynasty of Kic of ll. 224-231 and ll. 244-258, respectively, as one dynasty)

244-258In Kic, (Kish) Puzur-Suen, the son of Kug-Bau, became king; he ruled for 25 years.

Ur-Zababa, the son of Puzur-Suen, ruled for 400 (mss. P3+BT14, S have instead: 6) (ms. IB has instead: 4 + X) years.

(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 131 are the years of the dynasty of Kug-Bau.

Zimudar (ms. TL has instead: Ziju-iake) ruled for 30 (ms. IB has instead: 30 + X) years.

Uß³i-watar, the son of Zimudar (ms. TL has instead: Ziju-iake), ruled for 7 (ms. S has instead: 6) years.

Ectar-mut ruled for 11 (ms. Su1 has instead: 17 (?)) years.

Icme-Camac ruled for 11 years. (ms. Su1 adds:) Cu-ilicu ruled for 15 years.

Nanniya, the jeweller, (ms. Su1 has instead: Zimudar) (ms. IB has instead: ……) ruled for 7 (ms. S has instead: 3) years.

7 kings; they ruled for 491 (ms. Su1 has instead: 485) years (ms. S has instead: 8 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) 586 years).

Then Kic was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Kic (Kish) was abolished)

and the kingship was taken (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: was returned a third time) to Unug (Uruk).

(ms. IB omits the 3rd dynasty of Unug of ll. 258-263)

 

259-265In Unug, Lugal-zage-si became king; he ruled for 25 (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: 34) years.

1 king; he ruled for 25 (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: 34) years.

Then Unug was defeated (ms. S has instead:

Then the reign of Unug (Uruk) was abolished) and the kingship was taken to Agade (Akkad).

 

266-296In Agade, Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king,

the king of Agade (Akkad), who built Agade (ms. L1+N1 has instead: under whom Agade was built);

he ruled for 56 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 55) (ms. TL has instead: 54) years.

Rimuc, the son of Sargon, ruled for 9 (ms. IB has instead: 7) (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 15) years.

Man-icticcu, the older brother of Rimuc, the son of Sargon, ruled for 15 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 7) years.

Naram-Suen, the son of Man-icticcu, ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P3+BT14 have:) 56 years.

Car-kali-carri, the son of Naram-Suen, ruled for (ms. L1+N1, Su+Su4 have:) 25 (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: 24) years.

(ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 157 are the years of the dynasty of Sargon.

 

Then who was king? Who was the king? (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: who was king? Who indeed was king?)

Irgigi was king, Imi was king, Nanûm was king (in mss. L1+N1, Su3+Su4, Imi and Nanûm are in reverse order) ,

Ilulu was king, and the (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) 4 of them ruled for only (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) 3 years.

Dudu ruled for 21 years.

Cu-Durul, the son of Dudu, ruled for 15 (ms. IB has instead: 18) years.

11 kings; they ruled for 181 years (ms. S has instead: 12 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) 197 years)

(mss. Su1, Su3+Su4, which omit Dudu and Cu-Durul, have instead: 9 kings; they ruled for (ms. Su1 has:) 161 (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 177) years.

Then Agade was defeated (ms. S has instead:

Then the reign of Agade (Akkad) was abolished) and the kingship was taken to Unug (Uruk).

 

297-307In Unug, Ur-nijin became king; he ruled for 7 (mss. IB, S have instead: 3)

(ms. Su1 has instead:15) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 30) years.

Ur-gigir, the son of Ur-nijin, ruled for 6 (ms. IB has instead: 7) (ms. Su1 has instead: 15) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 7) years.

Kuda ruled for 6 years.

Puzur-ili ruled for 5 (ms. IB has instead: 20) years.

Ur-Utu ruled for 6 (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: Ur-Utu),

the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 25 (ms. Su1 has instead: Lugal-melem, the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 7) years.

5 kings; they ruled for 30 (ms. IB has instead: 43) (mss. PÝ+Ha, S have instead: 26) years

(ms. Su3+Su4, which omits Kuda and Puzur-ili, has instead: 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. Su3+Su4 has:) 47 years).

Unug was defeated (ms. S has instead:

Then the reign of Unug (Uruk) was abolished) and the kingship was taken to the army (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: land) of Gutium.

 

308-334 In the army (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: land) of Gutium, at first no king was famous;

they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years

(ms. L1+N1 has instead: they had no king; they ruled themselves for 5 years).

Then Inkicuc (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: ……) ruled for 6 (ms. L1+Ni1 has instead: 7) years.

Zarlagab ruled for 6 years.

Culme (ms. L1+N1 has instead: Yarlagac) ruled for 6 years.

Silulumec (ms. Mi has instead: Silulu) ruled for 6 (ms. G has instead: 7) years.

Inimabakec ruled for 5 (ms. Mi has instead: Duga ruled for 6) years.

Igecauc ruled for 6 (ms. Mi has instead: Ilu-an (?) ruled for 3) years.

Yarlagab ruled for 15 (ms. Mi has instead: 5) years. Ibate ruled for 3 years.

Yarla (ms. L1+N1 has instead: Yarlangab (?)) ruled for 3 years.

Kurum (ms. L1+N1 has instead: ……) ruled for 1 (ms. Mi has instead: 3) years.

Apil-kin ruled for 3 years.

La-erabum (?) ruled for 2 years.

Irarum ruled for 2 years.

Ibranum ruled for 1 year.

Hablum ruled for 2 years.

Puzur-Suen, the son of Hablum, ruled for 7 years.

Yarlaganda ruled for 7 years.

…… ruled for 7 years.

Tiriga (?) ruled for 40 days.

21 kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) 124 years and 40 days (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 25 years).

Then the army of Gutium was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Unug (Uruk).

 

335-340 In Unug (Uruk), Utu-hejal became king; he ruled for 427 years, …… days

(ms. IB has instead: 26 years, 2 + X months, and 15 days)

(ms. J has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days) (ms. TL has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days).

1 king; he ruled for 427 years, …… days (ms. J has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days)

(ms. TL has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days).

Then Unug (Uruk) was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim (Ur).

 

341-354In Urim (Ur), Ur-Namma became king; he ruled for 18 years.

Culgi, the son of Ur-Namma, ruled for 46 (mss. Su3+Su4, TL have instead: 48) (ms. P5 has instead: 58) years.

Amar-Suena, the son of Culgi, ruled for 9 (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 25) years.

Cu-Suen, the son of Amar-Suena, ruled for 9 (ms. P5 has instead: 7) (ms. Su1 has instead: 20 + X) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 16) years.

Ibbi-Suen, the son of Cu-Suen, ruled for 24 (mss. P5, Su1 have instead: 25) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 15) (ms. TL has instead: 23 (?)) years.

4 kings; they ruled for 108 years (mss. J, P5, Su1, Su3+Su4 have instead:

5 kings; they ruled for (ms. P5 has:) 117 (ms. Su1 has instead: 120 + X) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 123) years).

Then Urim (Ur) was defeated (ms. P5 has instead: Then the reign of Urim was abolished). (ms. Su3+Su4 adds:)

The very foundation of Sumer was torn out (?).

The kingship was taken to Isin.

 

1e - Isin looted (Isin, Bau’s patron city in ruins, & badly looted)

355-377 In Isin, Icbi-Erra became king; he ruled for 33 (ms. P5 has instead: 32) years.

Cu-ilicu, the son of Icbi-Erra, ruled for 20 (ms. P5 has instead: 10) (ms. Su1 has instead: 15) years.

Iddin-Dagan, the son of Cu-ilicu, ruled for 21 (ms. Su1 has instead: 25) years.

Icme-Dagan, the son of Iddin-Dagan, ruled for (mss. P2, P5 have:) 20 (ms. Mi has instead: 18) years.

Lipit-Ectar, the son of Icme-Dagan (ms. P2 has instead: Iddin-Dagan), ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2, P5 have:) 11 years.

Ur-Ninurta (mss. L1+N1, P2 add:) , the son of Ickur (Adad)

may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life – ruled for (ms. P5 has:) 28 years.

Bur-Suen, the son of Ur-Ninurta, ruled for 21 years.

Lipit-Enlil, the son of Bur-Suen, ruled for 5 years.

Erra-imitti ruled for 8 (mss. P5, TL have instead: 7) years. (ms. P5 adds:) …… ruled for …… 6 months.

Enlil-bani ruled for 24 years.

Zambiya ruled for 3 years.

Iter-pica ruled for 4 years.

Ur-dul-kugaruled for 4 years.

Suen-magir ruled for 11 years.

(ms. P5 adds:) Damiq-ilicu, the son of Suen-magir, ruled for 23 years.

14 kings; they ruled for 203 years (ms. P5 has instead: 225 years and 6 months).

 

(Mss. P2+L2, L1+N1 and P4+Ha conclude with a summary of the post-diluvian dynasties; the translation of ll.

378-431 uses numerical data from each mss. but follows the wording of P2+L2 and L1+N1)

 

378-431A total of 39 kings ruled for 14409 + X years, 3 months and 3 1/2 days, 4 times in Kic (Kish).

A total of 22 kings ruled for 2610 + X years, 6 months and 15 days, 5 times in Unug (Uruk).

A total of 12 kings ruled for 396 years, 3 times in Urim (Ur).

A total of 3 kings ruled for 356 years, once in Awan.

A total of 1 king ruled for 420 years, once in Hamazi.

16 lines missing

A total of 12 (?) kings ruled for 197 (?) years, once in Agade.

A total of 21 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 23) kings ruled for 125 years and 40 days

(ms. P4+Ha has instead: 99 years), once in the army of Gutium.

A total of 11 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 16) kings ruled for 159 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 226) years, once in Isin.

 

There are 11 cities, cities in which the kingship was exercised.

A total of 134 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 139) kings, who altogether ruled for 28,876 + X (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 3443 + X) 21 years.